Introduction

Abel, Richard, and Rick Altman. 2001. The Sounds of Early Cinema. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Alford, Robert. 2015. “Supernatural Speech: Silent Cinema’s Stake in Representing the Impossible.” In Cinematic Ghosts: Haunting and Spectrality from Silent Cinema to the Digital Era, edited by Murray Leeder, 77-94. New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Altman, Rick. 2004. Silent Film Sound. New York: Columbia University Press.

Anon. “Chat Among Publishers.” 1921. Music Trades 62 (10):39.

Anon. The Churchman. 1909.

Anon. “Edison Issues Music Cues.” 1913. Motography 10 (8):291.

Anon. Medium and Daybreak: A Weekly Journal Devoted to the History, Phenomena, Philosophy and Teachings of Spiritualism. 1881.

Anon. “Mutual to Provide Music Cue Service with Features.” 1917. Motion Picture News 15 (12):1847.

Baer, Hans A., and Merrill Singer. 2002. African American Religion: Varieties of Protest and Accommodation. Knoxville: Univ. of Tennessee Press.

Buse, Peter, and Andrew Stott. 1999. Ghosts Deconstruction, Psychoanalysis, History. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Chapin, D. 2000. “The Fox Sisters and the Performance of Mystery.” New York History 81 (April):156–88.

Clark, Emily Suzanne. 2016. A Luminous Brotherhood: Afro-Creole Spiritualism in Nineteenth-Century New Orleans. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Connor, Steven. 1999. “The Machine in the Ghost: Spiritualism, Technology and the ‘Direct Voice.’” In Ghosts: Deconstruction, Psychoanalysis, History, edited by Peter Buse and Andrew Stott, 203-225. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Cruea, Susan M. 2005. “Changing Ideals of Womanhood during the Nineteenth-Century Woman Movement.” ATQ 19 (3): 187.

Desmet, Christy, and Anne Williams. 2009. “Introduction.” In Shakespearean Gothic, edited by Christy Desmet and Anne Williams, 1-12. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

Dienstfrey, Eric. 2014. “Synch Holes and Patchwork in Early Feature-Film Scores.” Music and the Moving Image 7 (1):40–53.

Dubois, W. E. B., ed. 1911, 1914. “The Crisis.”

Gaines, Kevin K. 2012. Uplifting the Race: Black Leadership, Politics, and Culture in the Twentieth Century. Chapel Hill: UNC Press Books.

Gutierrez, Cathy. 2009. Plato’s Ghost: Spiritualism in the American Renaissance. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hill, Jr., Walter B. 2016. “Institutions of Memory and the Documentation of African Americans in Federal Records.” National Archives. August 15, 2016. https://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1997/summer/institutions-of-memory.html.

Holloway, Julian. 2006. “Enchanted Spaces: The Séance, Affect, and Geographies of Religion.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 96 (1):182–87.

Hubbert, Julie. 2011. Celluloid Symphonies Texts and Contexts in Film Music History. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.

Leeder, Murray, ed. 2015. Cinematic Ghosts: Haunting and Spectrality from Silent Cinema to the Digital Era. New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Leonard, Kendra Preston. 2016. Music for Silent Film: A Guide to North American Resources. Middleton: A-R Editions, Inc.

———. 2018. “Women at the Pedals: Female Cinema Musicians during the Great War.” In Over Here, Over There: Transatlantic Conversations on the Music of World War I, edited by William Brooks, Christina Bashford, and Gayle Magee, tbd. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press.

Marks, Martin Miller. 1997. Music and the Silent Film: Contexts and Case Studies, 1895-1924. New York: Oxford University Press.

Merck, Mandy. 1999. “The Medium of Exchange.” In Ghosts: Deconstruction, Psychoanalysis, History, edited by Peter Buse and Andrew Stott, 163-178. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Parkin-Gournelas, Ruth. 1999. “Anachrony and Anatopia: Spectres of Marx, Derrida and Gothic Fiction.” In Ghosts: Deconstruction, Psychoanalysis, History, edited by Peter Buse and Andrew Stott, 127-143. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Pérez, Elizabeth. 2011. “Spiritist Mediumship as Historical Mediation: African-American Pasts, Black Ancestral Presence, and Afro-Cuban Religions.” Journal of Religion in Africa 41 (4):330–65. https://doi.org/10.1163/157006611X604760.

Peyton, Dave. 1927. “The Musical Bunch: How to Play Picture Music.” The Chicago Defender (National Edition) (1921-1967); Chicago, Ill., August 13, 1927, Movie and Stage Department.

Purinton, Marjean, and Marliss C. Desens. 2009. “‘Shakespearean Shadows’ Parodic Haunting of Thomas Love Peacock’s Nightmare Abbey and Jane Austen’s Northanger Abbey.” In Shakespearean Gothic, edited by Christy Desmet and Anne Williams, 87-110. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

Rapee, Erno. 1970. Motion Picture Moods, for Pianists and Organists; [a Rapid-Reference Collection of Selected Pieces, Adapted to 52 Moods and Situations.]. New York: G. Schirmer.

Reynolds, Simon. 2011. Retromania: Pop Culture’s Addiction to Its Own Past. 1st American ed. London ; [New York]: Faber & Faber.

Robertson, Beth A. 2016. Science of the Seance: Transnational Networks and Gendered Bodies in the Study of Psychic Phenomena, 1918-40. UBC Press.

Rotman, Brian. 2008. Becoming Beside Ourselves: The Alphabet, Ghosts, and Distributed Human Being. Duke University Press.

Shryock, Henry S., and Jacob S. Siegel. 1980. The Methods and Materials of Demography. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

Simon, Scott. 2006. “Making the Music for Silent Movies.” NPR.Org. July 15, 2006. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5559593.

Sipos, Thomas M. 2010. Horror Film Aesthetics: Creating the Visual Language of Fear. Jefferson, N.C: McFarland.

Soister, John T., Henry Nicolella, Steve Joyce, and Harry Long. 2012. American Silent Horror, Science Fiction and Fantasy Feature Films, 1913-1929. Jefferson, N.C: McFarland.

Warner, Marina. 2008. Phantasmagoria: Spirit Visions, Metaphors, and Media into the Twenty-First Century. Oxford : Oxford University Press.

A Note on Race and this Study

“A crowd.” 1914. Crisis 8(4): 168.

Baer, Hans A., and Merrill Singer. 2002. African American Religion: Varieties of Protest and Accommodation. Knoxville: Univ. of Tennessee Press.

“Church and Parish.” 1909. Churchman. October 30: 639.

Clark, Emily Suzanne. 2016. A Luminous Brotherhood: Afro-Creole Spiritualism in Nineteenth-Century New Orleans. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

“Employment of Colored Women in Chicago.” Crisis 1(3): 24.

Gaines, Kevin K. 2012. Uplifting the Race: Black Leadership, Politics, and Culture in the Twentieth Century. Chapel Hill: UNC Press Books.

Hill, Jr., Walter B. 2016. “Institutions of Memory and the Documentation of African Americans in Federal Records.” National Archives. August 15, 2016. https://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1997/summer/institutions-of-memory.html.

Pérez, Elizabeth. 2011. “Spiritist Mediumship as Historical Mediation: African-American Pasts, Black Ancestral Presence, and Afro-Cuban Religions.” Journal of Religion in Africa 41 (4):330–65. https://doi.org/10.1163/157006611X604760.

Peyton, Dave. 1927. “The Musical Bunch: How to Play Picture Music.” Chicago Defender (National Edition) (1921-1967); Chicago, Ill., August 13, 1927, Movie and Stage Department.

Shryock, Henry S., and Jacob S. Siegel. 1980. The Methods and Materials of Demography. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

Chapter 1: Mediums and Musicians

Anon. 1915. Secrets of Clairvoyance: How to Become an Operator. I. & M. Ottenheimer.

Bailey, Candace. 2019. Women, Music, and the Performance of Gentility in the Mid-Nineteenth Century South. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Bomberger, E. Douglas. 2004. An Index to Music Published in the Étude Magazine, 1883-1957. Music Library Association Index and Bibliography Series 31. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press; Music Library Association.

Bowers, Jane M., and Judith Tick. 1986. Women Making Music: The Western Art Tradition, 1150-1950. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Carrington, Hereward. 1920. The Physical Phenomena of Spiritualism: Being a Brief Account of the Most Important Historical Phenomena, with a Criticism of Their Evidential Value. American Universities Publishing Company.

Clark, Uriah. 1863. Plain Guide to Spiritualism: A Handbook for Skeptics, Inquirers, Clergymen, Believers, Lecturers … William White & Company.

Farrington, Elijah, Charles F. Pidgeon, Harry Price, Eric John Dingwall, and A. Medium. 1922. Revelations of a Spirit Medium; Facsimile Edition, with Notes, Bibliography, Glossary and Index. London : K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & co., ltd.; New York, E. P. Dutton & co.

Gutierrez, Cathy. 2009. Plato’s Ghost: Spiritualism in the American Renaissance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Holloway, Julian. 2006. “Enchanted Spaces: The Séance, Affect, and Geographies of Religion.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 96 (1):182–87.

Hubbert, Julie. 2011. Celluloid Symphonies Texts and Contexts in Film Music History. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.

Leonard, Kendra Preston. 2018a. “Cue Sheets, Musical Suggestions, and Performance Practices for Hollywood Films, 1908-1927.” In Music and Sound in Silent Cinema: From the Nickelodeon to The Artist, edited by Ruth Barton and Simon Trezise, tbd. London: Routledge.

———. 2018b. “Women at the Pedals: Female Cinema Musicians during the Great War.” In Over Here, Over There: Transatlantic Conversations on the Music of World War I, edited by William Brooks, Christina Bashford, and Gayle Magee, tbd. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press.

Macleod, Beth Abelson. 2015. Fannie Bloomfield-Zeisler: The Life and Times of a Piano Virtuoso. Music in American Life. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press.

McGarry, Molly. 2008. Ghosts of Futures Past: Spiritualism and the Cultural Politics of Nineteenth-Century America. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Meyer-Frazier, Petra. 2006. “Music, Novels, and Women: Nineteenth-Century Prescriptions for an Ideal Life.” Women and Music 10:45–59.

Moore, R. Laurence. 1975. “The Spiritualist Medium: A Study of Female Professionalism in Victorian America.” American Quarterly 27 (2):200–221. https://doi.org/10.2307/2712342.

Motion Picture News. 1913. “Belasco Sees ‘the Good Little Devil’ Film,” December 13, 1913.

———. 1914a. “Why Exhibitors Fail,” January 10, 1914.

———. 1914b. “His Three Rules,” March 28, 1914.

“Music for the Picture.” 1918. Moving Picture World 37 (August):1120–21.

Natale, Simone. 2016. Supernatural Entertainments: Victorian Spiritualism and the Rise of Modern Media Culture. University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press.

The American Organist Vol. 1. 1918. American Guild of Organists (New York).

The American Organist Vol. 2. 1919. American Guild of Organists (New York).

The American Organist Vol. 3. 1920. American Guild of Organists (New York).

The American Organist Vol. 5. 1922. American Guild of Organists (New York).

The American Organist Vol. 8. 1925. American Guild of Organists (New York).

The American Organist Vol. 9. 1926. American Guild of Organists (New York).

The American Organist Vol. 10. 1927. American Guild of Organists (New York).

The Film Daily. 1918a. “Abandon Orchestras,” August 28, 1918.

———. 1918b. “Rapf’s All Women Feature,” September 16, 1918.

“Union Scale of Wages and Hours of Labor, Union Scale of Wages and Hours of Labor, May 15, 1921: Bulletin of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, No. 302 | Fraser | St. Louis Fed.” n.d. Accessed November 3, 2017.

Walkowitz, Judith R. 1988. “Science and the Seance: Transgressions of Gender and Genre in Late Victorian London.” Representations, no. 22:3–29. https://doi.org/10.2307/2928407.

Wallis, Edward Walter, and Minnie Harriet Wallis. 1976. A Guide to Mediumship and Psychical Unfoldment. Health Research Books.

Welter, Barbara. 1976. Dimity Convictions: The American Woman in the Nineteenth Century. Athens: Ohio University Press.

Chapter 2:  Spirits and Music on the Screen

Archives

Josephine Burnett Collection. Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas at Austin.

Claire H. Hamack Papers. Silent Film Music Collection. American Music Research Center, University of Colorado-Boulder.

Adele V. Sullivan Papers. Silent Film Music Collection. American Music Research Center, University of Colorado-Boulder.

Publications

Adorno, Theodor W., and Hanns Eisler. 1947 (2007). Composing for the Films. London: Bloomsbury.

“At the Majestic.” 1921. The Fort Wayne Sentinel. May 20, 1921:21.

Beebe, G. H, and E. Chouteau Legg. 1910. Messages from Spirit Land in Song Form. Oklahoma City, Okla.: Beebe Publishing Co.

Connor, Steven. 1999. “The Machine in the Ghost: Spiritualism, Technology and the ‘Direct Voice.’” In Ghosts: Deconstruction, Psychoanalysis, History, edited by Peter Buse and Andrew Stott, 203-225. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

“Do the Dead Talk.” 1921. The Fort Wayne Journal-Gazette, May 15, 1921: 8B.

Edison Kinetograph Monthly. 1915. October.

Edison Phonograph Monthly. 1903. October.

George, Tyacke. 1914. Playing to Pictures. London: E. T. Heron and Co.

Josephine Burnett Collection. Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas-Austin.

Kassabian, Anahid. 2001. Hearing Film : Tracking Identifications in Contemporary Hollywood Film Music. New York: Routledge.

Kates, Zaida Brown and G. Tabor (George Tabor) Thompson. 1911. Spiritualist hymnal: a new collection of words and music for the congregation and choir, specially adapted for spiritualist meetings. Washington, D. C.: National Spiritualist Association.

Lang, Edith, and George West. 1920. Musical accompaniment of moving pictures a practical manual for pianists and organists and an exposition of the principles underlying the musical interpretation of moving pictures. Boston: Boston Music Co.

Leonard, Kendra Preston. 2019. “The Gothic and Music: Scoring ‘Silent’ Spectres.” The Gothic and the Arts, ed. David Punter. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press.

Luz, Ernst. 1917. ‘The Music and the Picture.’ Motion Picture News. October 6.

Mannoni, Laurent, and Richard Crangle. 2000. The Great Art of Light and Shadow: Archaeology of the Cinema. Exeter, Devon: University of Exeter Press.

Motography. 1918. January 12.

Packard, J. B, and J. S Loveland. 1860. The Spirit Minstrel; Collection of Hymns and Music, for the Use of Spiritualists, in Their Circles and Public Meetings. Boston: Bela Marsh.

“Presentations.” 1927. The Film Daily. November 20.

Reed, Teresa L. 2003. The Holy Profane: Religion in Black Popular Music. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.

Sinn, Clarence. 1911. “Music for the Picture.” Moving Picture World. July 15.

———. 1918. “Music for the Picture.” Moving Picture World. January 26.

Soister, John T., Henry Nicolella, Steve Joyce, and Harry Long. 2012. American Silent Horror, Science Fiction and Fantasy Feature Films, 1913-1929. Jefferson, N.C: McFarland.

Stuckey, Norman. 1921. “Music for the Photoplay.” Exhibitors Trade Review 11, no. 11 (Feb. 11, 1922): 778.

Tucker, S. W. 1897. The Golden Echoes: A New Collection of Original Words and Music for the Use of Meetings, Lyceums and the Home Circle. Boston: Banner of light Publishing Company.

Watson, Jo-Shipley. 1911. “A Good Musical for Halloween.” Etude, October 1911: 699.

Chapter 3: Case Studies in Musical Cues

“Across the Silversheet.” 1920. Motion Picture Magazine. November.

“Baltimore Uses Novelty Float for Earthbound.” 1920. Motion Picture News. February 16.

“Barrett Works Out Clever Presentation Number.” 1921. Motion Picture News. May 7.

Beynon, George. 1918. “Music for the Picture.” Moving Picture World. August 3.

“Brief Stories of the Week’s Film Releases.” 1916. Motography. June 24.

“Chicago.” 1920. Motion Picture News. October 2.

Earthbound Advertisement. 1920. Motion Picture News. October 2.

Earthbound is Approved.” 1920. Motion Picture News. August 28.

Earthbound is Booked by Miller’s Theater.” 1920. Motion Picture News. September 25.

Earthbound Opens at the Capitol.” 1920. Motion Picture News. September 25.

“Extend Runs of Earthbound.” 1920. Motion Picture News. September 4.

“Feature Runs 8 Weeks.” 1920. Motion Picture News. September 11.

“Fine Earthbound Prologue.” 1921. Motion Picture News. February 26.

Ghost of the Jungle: South African Drama.” 1916. Baltimore Sun. June 25.

The Ghost of the Jungle.” 1916. Moving Picture World. June 24.

The Ghost of the Vaults.” 1911. Moving Picture World. July 8.

“Hayes Hunter, Director of Earthbound.” 1920. Motion Picture News. September 4.

Jacobs’ Band Monthly. 1919. November.

Leonard, Kendra Preston. 2018. “Musical Mimesis in Orphans of the Storm.” Music Theory Online 24, no. 2 (June).

“List of Films, Reels and Views Examined.” 1918. Pennsylvania State Board of Censors of Motion Pictures.

Luz, Ernst. 1912. “Picture Music.” Moving Picture News. November 16.

“Miss Minter Heads Mutual Bill.” 1918. Motography. July 13.

Morgan-Ellis, Esther. 2018. Everybody Sing! Community Singing in the American Picture Palace. University of Georgia Press.

“Mutual.” 1918. Motography. July 13.

Prager, Benjamin A. 1920. “Thinks Religious Prejudice is Passing.” Exhibitors Herald. October 16.

“The sale of tickets.” 1920. Motion Picture News. October 2.

Sinn, Clarence. 1910. “Music for the Picture.” Moving Picture World. December 3.

———. 1911. “Music for the Picture.” Moving Picture World. July 15.

“Stars Shine in Universals for June 19.” 1916. Moving Picture World. June 24.

“Stunts.” 1920. Exhibitors Herald. December 18.

“What the Big Houses Say.” 1920. Motion Picture News. October 16

Wid’s Daily. 1918. July 14.

Winkler, Max. 1916. “Music for the Week of June 19, 1916.” Moving Pictures Weekly. June 10.

———. 1917a. “Music for Love Aflame.” Moving Pictures Weekly. January 27.

———. 1917b. “Music for Man of the Hour.” Moving Pictures Weekly. April 14.

———. 1917c. “Music for The Flame of Youth and the Universal Program.” Moving Pictures Weekly. June 16.

———. 1920. “Earthbound.” Motion Picture News. October 16.

“With First Run Theaters.” 1920. Motion Picture News.

Chapter 4: Silents in Sound

American Organist Vol. 12. 1929. American Guild of Organists (New York).

Carlson, Marvin A. 2003. The Haunted Stage: The Theatre as Memory Machine. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

David, George. 1935. “‘Scrooge’ Fine English Cinema On New Regent Program.” Rochester (NY) Democrat and Chronicle, December 19, 1935.

Edison Phonography Monthly. 1911. “Foreign Records for December, 1911,” December 1911.

Elferen, Isabella Van van. 2012. Gothic Music: The Sounds of the Uncanny. Gothic Literary Studies. Cardiff: Univ. of Wales Press.

Exhibitors Herald. 1924. “The Theatre,” January 12, 1924.

Halfyard, Janet K. 2010. “Mischief Afoot: Supernatural Horror-Comedies and the Diabolus in Musica.” In Music in the Horror Film: Listening to Fear, 21–37. New York: Routledge.

Hazelgrove, Jenny. 2000. Spiritualism and British Society Between the Wars. Manchester University Press.

Leonard, Kendra Preston. 2018. “Musical Mimesis in Orphans of the Storm.” Music Theory Online 24 (2). http://mtosmt.org/issues/mto.18.24.2/mto.18.24.2.leonard.html.

Martin, Mildred. 1937. “These Film Phantoms Are All in Good Fun.” Philadelphia Inquirer, August 1, 1937.

Moving Picture World. 1917. “Miscellaneous Subjects–Bluebird Photoplays Inc., The Right to Be Happy,” January 6, 1917.

Pittsburgh Press. 1929. “Canned Music on Trial (Advertisement),” 1929. https://repository.duke.edu/dc/adaccess/R0206.

Shakespeare, William. 2006. Hamlet. Edited by Neil Taylor and Ann Thompson. Third Series. Arden Shakespeare.